Open Port Period (1876-1910)

Open Port Period (1876-1910)

hwang chosen chaeknyak Huang Zunxian 黃遵憲, 朝鮮策略 Zhaoxian celue [Strategy for Korea], recommended Korea to enter the treaty relationship with the US against Russian expansionism. Had a positive view of Protestantism as an American religion.



Les Missionnaires de Corée de la Socieite des Missions étrangères de Paris. Grammaire Coréenne: Précédée d’un Introduction sur le Caractère de la Langue Coréenne. Yokohama, L. Lévy et S. Salabelle: 1881.


Ross, John. Korean Speech with Grammar and Vocabulary. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1882. (reprint, Seoul : T’ap Ch’ulp’ansa, 1979).
0 1882 luke ross family ca 1885 April John Ross, Gospel of Luke, the first Korean translation of the gospel, 1882 published in Manchuria. Korean colporteurs and evangelists brought the copies of Luke and John into Korea. Japanese colorteurs also distributed the copies in Pusan.


yisj 1883 1883 3rd April 29 Yi Sujông was baptized by J. W. Knox in Tokyo and made a speech at the third Conference of Japanese Protestant Leaders


1883 foote American minister Foote goes to the palace


1883 min September 6 Korean envoy to US, seated center Min Yôngik, his left Hong Yôngsik, his left Percival Lowell, arrived in San Francisco


1883 goucher John F. Goucher, president of Baltimore Women’s College, met the Korean envoy en route from Chicago to New York. Goucher supported Maclay’s trip to Korea in 1884 and offered $2,000 for the establishment of the Korea Mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church, whose first missionaries were Appenzellers and Scrantons


0 foulk 1882 am legation May George Clayton Foulk (1856-1893) arrived in Seoul and served as naval attaché to the first U.S. legation and was chargé d’affaires from 1885 until 1887.


1884_Sorae_church_ Korean Christians began to worship at Sorae, Hwanghae


1883 mr mrs maclay  June Robert S. Maclay visited Seoul for a scout mission trip from Japan. King Kojong permitted to establish Protestant schools and hospitals


allen September 22 Dr. Horace Newton Allen, the first resident Protestant (Presbyterian) missionary to Korea, was transferred from Shanghai to Seoul
kim ok kyun min y i Dec. 4 Kapsin Coup. by Kim Okkyun and his progressive party. Dr. Allen saved heavily wounded Min Yôngik. Allen and Min became friends. Allen submitted a plan to establish a modern hospital in January 1885


Jan. 25 H. G. Underwood arrived in Yokohama
1885 appenzellers February 27 Mr. & Mrs. Appenzeller, W. B. Scranton Family arrived in Yokohama


March 31 The Korea Mission of the Methodist E. Church organized in Tokyo by Maclay


1884 underwood1884 appenzeller April 5 Appenzellers and Underwood reached Chemulpo


Mr. & Mrs. Appenzeller (pregnant) returned to Japan owing to political unrest


a 1885 u house April 6 H. G. Underwood came to Seoul


 601004072329213April 14 Chejungwon (Royal Hospital, the first modern national hospital) opened in Seoul. Dr. Allen worked there as doctor of the American Legation
May 22 Dr. W. B. Scranton came to Seoul
June 20 Mr. & Mrs. Appenzeller and Scranton family came to Seoul
June 28 The first Protestant worship service for foreigners and missionaries
Aug. 3 Appenzeller began to teach two Korean students
Oct. 13 The first Lord’s Supper for foreigners (Union Church)
Nov. 19 The first western baby, Alice Appenzeller, was born


a 1889 o May 11 Underwood opened an orphanage


1886_mrs_scrnaton_house May Mary Scranton received the first pupil of girls’ school, teaching her at her own room


a 1887_paejae June 8 Appenzeller’s Paejae School opened officially


rho c g July 18 Underwood baptized Ro Ch’ungyong, the first Korean Protestant Christian baptized in Seoul


  1887 mark cover aaA revised edition of the Yi Sujong’s Gospel of Mark was published in September 1887 in Yokohama (tr. by Underwood and Appenzeller)
0 ross nt 1887The first Korean NT, prepared by John Ross, published in Shenyang
Queen Min bestowed the name “Ewha Haktang” upon Mary Scranton’s school


l s horton March 23 Miss Lillias S. Horton, MD, arrived in Seoul (married H. G. Underwood in MArch 1889)
1888 bisijisi 11 June The Baby Riot
1886 paejae Paejae School, a new building completed
1887_salvation_for_All_Women_Hospital November Methodist Woman’s Hospital, Pogunyôgwan, near Chôngdong Methodist Church, Seoul, opened


1890_chungsin_girls_school_html Chôngsin Haktang 정신여학당 Presbyterian Girlds’ School in Seoul


1900 mukden churchFeb. 25, S. A. Moffett, James Gale & Sô Sangnyun started a 3-month walking tour from Seoul through northern Korea into Moukden, Manchuria, coming back to Seoul through Hamheung and Wonsan. They met John Ross and saw the Mukden Church built in Chinese style


1892 helpers Three Korean Presbterain Evangelists (helpers), Paek Hong-jun, Sô Sang-nyun, Ch’oe Myong-o
1892 moffett gale Presbyterian missinonries (Moffett, Gale, Vinton) and helpers


0 1897 mec m Korea Mission, Methodist Episcopal Church, Seoul


0 1893 pcus mission Seven pioneer missionaries of the PCUS in Seoul


Tonghak Uprising
1892 hall m Hall & Moffett leaving for Pyongyang from Chemulpo (Moffett Collection)
1894 py lim
May Pyongyang Persecution Incident


0 1894 landis Anglican Night English School by Dr. E. B. Landis, Chemulpo


July 23 Japanese troops took over the Korean imperial palace in Seoul


Aug. 1 The First Sino-Japanese War erupted


avison September Dr. Oliver R. Avison became in charge of the Chejungwon (Royal Hospital)
1894 korean tonghaks THe Second Tonghak Uprising



miss jacobson April 6 Miss Anna P. Jacobson, graduated from Main General Hospital Training School for Nurses, the first Presbyterian nurse, arrived in Seoul with Dr. Georgiana Whiting

April 17 China and Japan signed the peace treaty of Shimonoseki

April 23 Russia, France, and Germany forced Japan to return the Liaodong peninsula to China

May 8 China ceded Taiwan to Japan under the Treaty of Shimonoseki

 Oct. 8 Queen Min was assassinated by a Japanese gang led by Japanese minister Miura Koro 三浦梧樓


1896 pusan station 123 Missionaries of the Pusan station, PCUSA

January 20 Miss Anna P. Jacobson died
img_0007Robert Speer, a secretary of BFM, PCUSA, visited Korea (Moffett Collection)
1897 shields September Esther L. Shields arrived in Seoul as the second R. N. of the Presbyterian missions (Moffett Collection)


1897_chungdong_church a 1897 0 chongdong 1898
Chongdong Methodist Church, Seoul   Inside: gender segregated seats by Korean screens


1898_sorae_church_falgpole suh kyongjo family
Sorae Church and its Flag of St. George/ So Kyongjo 서경조 family


a 1900 py cc Central Presbyterian Church 장대현교회 in Pyongyang
l. h. severance Mr. L. H. Severance met Dr. O. R. Avison at the Ecumenical Missionary Council in New York, and promised to donate $10,000 for a union hospital in Seoul


13_1901_council the Presbyterian Council at Chejungwon, Seoul


clark19021902kearnsaapCharles Allen Clark, Carl Emerson Kearns, and Alexander A. Pieters, a converted Russian Jew, graduated McCormick Theological Seminary. Clark and Kearns were sent to Korea in 1902; Pieters to the Philippines and then was transferred to Korea in 1905.


July The first Korean Church at Mokgolia in Hawaii organized
Aug. 7 Sinminhoe in Hawaii organized
Aug. The Wonsan Revival began
Sept. The Nurses Training School began at the Pogu Hospital in Seoul by Edmunds
Oct. Sinmyong Girls’ School in Taegu; Sungui Girls’ School in Pyongyang;
Youngsaeng Girls’ School in Hamheung; Myongshin Boys’ School in Kanggye;
Youngheung Boys’ School in Mokpo; Maehyang School in Suwon established
Oct. 28 Seoul YMCA organized
Nov. 19 Lucy Girls School in Wonsan established


Feb 8 Japanese navy sank two Russian cruisers in Inch’ôn. Russo-Japanese War began.
Feb 9 Japanese troops landed near Seoul
1904 s h September. New buildings of Severance (Chejungwon) Hospital opened


1905_poku_hospital Miss Edmunds with Korean nurses and patients at the Methodist Woman’s Hospital in Seoul


1906 6 pic January 30 Two Korean pupil nurses (Grace Yi and Martha Kim) were capped at the Methodist Woman’s Hospital, Pogunyogwan (the first capping ceremony in Korea)
September Severance Hospital Training School for Nurses opened
Jan. The Pyongyang Revival began


1907 first grdua June 20 The first 7 graduates of the Union Presbyterian Seminary in Pyongyang. They were ordained to the ministry at the Presbytery in September.
1907-presbytery Sept. 17 The independent Korean Presbytery organized.
S. A. Moffett elected moderator.


1908 6 shmc grad June 3 The Frist Seven graduates of the Severance Hospital Medical School
1908 Nov. 15 First Korean graduate nurses (Grace Yi and Martha Kim) from Methodist Women’s Hospital (Pogunyogwan), Seoul


janginhwan stevens March 23 Chang Inhwan & Chun Myongun shot Stevens to death at San Francisco


1909_reynolds_trans April Rev. W. D. Reynolds and two Korean helpers completed the translation of the Korean Old Testament, Chunju
13 B May 1 Ernest Thomas Bethel, editor of Korea Daily News, died in Seoul


1909 mark 1 1909 poster-1September The Million Soul Movement began. Korean Christians volunteered to distribute 700,000 copies of the Gospel of Mark and other evangelistic tracts and sheets


1909 sinhan minbo September a political cartoon of Sinhan Minbo (New Korea), a Korean newspaper in San Francisco, urged Koreans to attack Japanese imperialism in the name of the international law and Heavenly Way (Christianity)


0 ahn cg October 26. 安重根 Ahn Chunggûn (1879-1910), a Roman Catholic, assassinated Ito Hirobumi, Resident General.


Feb. 15 Salvation Army School of Training Officers was opened
Feb. 28 The Christian News 예수교회보 founded
March 26. Ahn Chunggûn was executed
March 30 Dr. Irvin opened the Lepers’ Hospital in Pusan
April Ewha School began the collegiate department
April Ebina Danjo and Watase Tsuneyoshi amder a scout visiting for the mission of of the Japanese Congregational Church in Korea
0 ref ntApril The Reference New Testament, prepared by Kilborne, published


1910 leaders in c Leaders in Chaeryong station
(missionaries Hunt, Bernheisel, Koons)


S. A. Moffett and Yun Ch’iho attended as delegates of the Korean Church
G. H. Jones (from NY) joined the discussion on Chinese religions on June 18

(Only 19 out of 1,215 members of the Conference came from the younger churches: 8 from India, 3 from China, 4 from Japan, 1 from Burma, 1 from Turkey, 1 from Korea, and probably 1 from Africa.)

1910 1st grd severance June 10 First graduation, Severance Hospital Nurses Training School.


0 1910 4 yorodzuJapanese newspaper cartoon, criticizing American missionaries’ baptism of nationalism on Koreans in the name of Christianity